A m rosenthal condemns female circumcision, a traditional practice common to many african and arabic peoples, as female mutilation in female genital torture (column, nov 12) the. Social contract theory social contract theory, nearly as old as philosophy itself, is the view that persons' moral and/or political obligations are dependent upon a contract or agreement among them to form the society in which they live. Clitoridectomy more often involves parts of the clitoris being partially or completely removed during fgm, which may be additionally known as female circumcision or female genital cutting (fgc)   removing the glans of the clitoris does not mean that the whole structure is lost, since the clitoris reaches deep into the genitals.
Advice goddess blog both male and female circumcision are unnecessary surgery on an unconsenting person therein lies the comparison it is an extremely male orientated, female hating culture this is why they mutilate the women they don't want women with a heightened sexuality, frankly, because they don't want to do it sick just. Attempting to remedy the problems of the overly culture-specific dsm criteria for an, sing lee44 proposed a set of 5 criteria for a more culture-free diagnosis (table 2) the innovative features are in criteria b and c. Salmon argues that clitoridectomy (female genital mutilation) vio- f' own culture this issue raises questions about the boundaries and limits of the elliott p skinner counters that female circumcision is only found in african societies where male circumcision is also practiced both practices in. Intersex surgery, female genital cutting, and the selective condemnation of “cultural practices” nancy ehrenreich with mark barr western feminism has represented african genital cutting as primitive, irrational, harmful, and deserving of condemnation.
The human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)/aids epidemic has already devastated many individuals, families, and communities the epidemic has left millions of children orphaned, has disrupted village and community life, and increasingly contributes to the erosion of civil order and economic growth. Clitoridectomy or clitoral excision, female circumcision, and infibulation or pharaonic circumcision the first, as the term suggests, is the removal of the clitoris (shandaal, 1967), the second usually involves. Activists welcome measure but urge need for health warnings, community empowerment schemes, and dissociation from islam. The physical complication associated with female genital mutilation may be acute or chronic early, life threatening risks include hemorrhage, shock secondary to blood loss or pain, local infection and failure to heal, septicemia, tetanus, trauma to adjacent structures, keloid, cyst, infertility, and urinary retention.
Abstract in addressing the issue of female circumcision, the paper suggests that only a comprehensive approach towards all modifications of sexual organs, using a single, not a double, standard will make the human rights discourse on sexual organs. A fortnightly summary of hiv research news hiv treatment is not a cure, but it is keeping millions of people well start learning about it in this section just diagnosed in this section we have answered some of the questions you might have if you have just found out you have hiv antiretroviral. Abstract the meru live in one of the most fertile and densely populated areas of tanzania, and their current population number is about 198,000 people. Female circumcision, the partial or total cutting away of the external female genitalia, has been practiced for centuries in parts of africa, generally as one element of a rite of passage preparing young girls for womanhood and marriage. Circumcision, is the most common and severe form of female circumcision (gruenbaum, 2001) this type of circumcision includes the removal of the clitoris, labia minora, and labia majora the remaining parts of the labia majora are sutured together to cover the urethra and the vagina.
In 1993 the world conference on human rights issued a declaration that female circumcision is a form of violence against 58 and that governments should intensify educational programs to inform the public about the harmful effects of female circumcision1998 contending with culture women and children. The rite of birth is the first of the major african initiation rites and it involves initiating the infant into the world through a ritual and naming ceremony nearly all african cultures hold that the infant has come from the spirit world with important information from that world, and is bringing unique talents and gifts to offer to the. Others were 'cured' through sexual surgery, including clitoridectomy or 'female circumcision', which doctors first practised on indigent american women and black female slaves advert these same physicians continued a long tradition of viewing menstruation as dirty and dangerous, 'the curse' inflicted upon women because of eve's sin. Female genital mutilation has been outlawed in britain, canada, france, norway, sweeden, switzerland, and the united states the following two maps show the percentages of women and girls in africa from the ages of 15-49 who have undergone a fgm surgery.
Clitoridectomy and female circumcision, practices often labeled as female genital mutilations, are not just controversial cultural rites performed in foreign countries a new book from a. The term 'female circumcision' is sometimes used to describe procedures more analogous to the removal of the penis than to what we call 'circumcision' in males though circumcision exists in many societies, its routine use on infants in north america is being abandoned. I'm wondering lately why circumcision is not properly called male genital mutilation, whereas female circumcision is known as such circumcision for males is culturally accepted in the west, yet when it happens to females it's considered a horrid tragedy perpetuated by irrational, superstitious cultures.
Rodriguez, sw 2008, ' rethinking the history of female circumcision and clitoridectomy: american medicine and female sexuality in the late nineteenth century ' journal of the history of medicine and allied sciences, vol 63, no 3, pp 323-347. The title of the dissertation--â“choice and discovery: an an alysis of women and culture in flora nwapaâ’s worksâ”â—acknowledges the studyâ’s gr ounding in bakhtinâ’s theories of speech acts, polyphony, and heteroglossia and henders onâ’s modification of those theories to show what choice and discovery mean for the. It is sometimes referred to as female circumcision, or female genital cutting the practice is medically unnecessary, is extremely painful and has serious health consequences, both at the time when the mutilation is carried out, and in later life. By the 1990s, the problems encountered and caused by young black students in public schools had become a national priority and among the initiatives proposed by black leader at the time was the establishment of special schools exclusively for young black males.
In the cities, the complex male and female initiation practices found in the rural areas are often reduced to simple circumcision (the removal of the foreskin for boys) and clitoridectomy (the removal of the clitoris for girls)—usually performed on the eighth day of the baby's birth. For girls, genital surgery connected with rites of passage usually involves clitoridectomy (or female circumcision) and/or infibulation clitoridectomy is cutting off all or part of the clitoris and sometimes all or part of the labia. Female circumcision and clitoridectomy in the united states were, to paraphrase rosenberg, therapies “defined and framed in ways appropriate to both the clinical” (an understanding of the clitoris as a sexual organ) and “the more general contours and needs of the culture” (a narrow understanding of normative female sexual behavior.